Vitamin B12 2µg.day-1
B12 is an essential component of many important metabolic processes including synthesis of DNA, formation of new cells, digestion and absorption of foods and protein synthesis amongst others.
It is commonly thought that B12 can only be sourced through animal products or specific supplements however I have provided a list below of plant based, vegan sources.
B12 Signs and symptoms of a B12 deficiency in the diet are not immediately apparent and could take up to 5 years to show since the body can store B12, mainly in the liver and kidneys. Chronic B12 deficiency can result in anaemia and associated fatigue, neurological damage and severe cognitive impairment.
PLANT BASED SOURCES: Meridian Yeast Extract with B12; Marigold – Engevita Yeast Flakes with B12; Koko Coconut Milk/Yogurt; Sun Chlorella Food Supplement.
Whilst Choline is not classed as a vitamin it plays an important role in operation of the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine affecting cognitive function, stimulus response and memory. It also plays a role in the structure of cell membranes and assists in metabolising fats and cholesterol. It is another nutrient thought to be deficient in the vegan diet.
PLANT BASED SOURCES: Broccoli; Chickpeas; Kale; Quinoa; Tempeh.
An essential component of oxyhaemoglobin and therefore plays a vital role in transporting oxygen throughout the body. Iron is also a component of many proteins including myoglobin and certain cytochromes which function as mediators in certain metabolic pathways including cellular respiration. Deficiencies include anaemia, heart palpitations, shortness of breath and tiredness.
PLANT BASED SOURCES: Black beans; ChickLentils; Pumpkin seeds, Quinoa; Sunflower seeds; Tempeh.